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Location: Central Bank of Bahrain Volume 3—Insurance > Part A > Business Standards > CA Capital Adequacy > CA-5 Valuation of Liabilities
  • CA-5 Valuation of Liabilities

    • CA-5.1 Valuation of Liabilities

      • CA-5.1.1

        The Valuation of Liabilities Rules apply with respect to the determination of the amount of liabilities of an insurance firmG .

        Amended: January 2007

      • CA-5.1.2

        Subject to the specific provisions of this Chapter, the amount of liabilities of an insurance firmG in respect its long-term insurance businessG , general insurance businessG and any other activities directly arising from that business must be determined in accordance with generally accepted accounting and actuarial concepts, using generally accepted methods appropriate for insurance firmsG .

        Amended: January 2007

      • CA-5.1.2A

        Where an insurance licenseeG writes long term insuranceG with guaranteed level premiums, the reserving and solvency requirements must follow the requirements for long term insuranceG . However, where a life policy or an extension of a life policy with has a policy term of less than or equal to one year, the valuation of these liabilities should follow the requirements of Paragraph CA-5.1.3 to CA-5.1.10.

        Adopted: October 2009

      • General Insurance Business

        • CA-5.1.3

          The amount of insurance liabilities that are general insurance businessG liabilities must be determined in accordance with International Accounting Standards applicable to insurance business or until such a standard or standards come into effect, with the provisions of Paragraphs CA-5.1.4 to CA-5.1.10.

          Amended: January 2007

        • CA-5.1.4

          Unearned premiumsG and unearned commission income in respect of the general insurance businessG must be calculated by a method which has due regard to the period of the policy and the incidence of risk throughout that period. Time apportionment of the premium over the period of policy cover is normally appropriate unless there is a marked unevenness in the incidence of risk over that period, in which case a basis which reflects the profile of risk must be used.

          Amended: January 2007

        • CA-5.1.5

          Where a time apportionment method is used that method must be at least as accurate as the '24ths basisG ' of premium income recognition, except for reinsurers for which transactions are only recorded every quarter where the method used must be at least as appropriate as the 1/8th basis. Where a time apportionment method is deemed inappropriate due to uncertainty in the period of insurance, such as for marine cargo, the method used must be disclosed in the actuarial report required as per Chapter AA-4.

          Amended: October 2009

        • CA-5.1.6

          Unearned reinsurance premiums ceded must be calculated on the basis of the principles specified in Paragraphs CA-5.1.4 and CA-5.1.5.

        • CA-5.1.7

          Unexpired risk reserves (URR) should be calculated as the prospective estimate of expected future payments arising from future events insured under policies in force as at the valuation date and also include allowance for insurance firm'sG expenses including overheads and cost of reinsurance, expected to be incurred during the unexpired period in administering these policies and settling the relevant claims, and must allow for any expected future premium refund. Where the unearned premiumG less unearned commission calculated in Paragraphs CA-5.1.4to CA-5.1.6 above is less than the unexpired risk reserves, the company must set up a suitable additional provision for unexpired risks to cover this deficiency (premium deficiency). This premium deficiency provisions must be calculated at a prudent level.

          Amended: October 2009
          Amended: January 2007

        • CA-5.1.7A

          In calculating the URR as required under Paragraph CA-5.1.7, the actuary report must clearly disclose if the URR has been calculated on and individual class basis or on total company basis and must justify the approach taken in the adopted method.

          Adopted: October 2009

        • CA-5.1.8

          Provision must be made for the expected ultimate cost of settlement of all claims incurred in respect of events up to that date, whether reported or not, together with related claims handling expenses, less amounts already paid. This provision should be calculated at a prudent level. This should include a provision for claims reported, claims incurred but not reported (IBNR), claims incurred but not enough reserved (IBNER) and direct and indirect claims handling expenses such as investigation fees, loss adjustment fees, legal fees, labour charges and the expected internal costs that the insurer expects to incur when settling these claims. If a liability is known to exist but there is uncertainty as to its eventual amount, a provision should nevertheless be made.

          Amended: October 2009
          Amended: January 2007

        • CA-5.1.8A

          The IBNR includes the IBNER. The distinction between IBNR and IBNER is made for a consistent approach to matching of income and expenses.

          Adopted: October 2009

        • CA-5.1.9

          The level of claims provisions must be set such that:

          (a) No adverse run-off deviation is envisaged;
          (b) The provision is determined having regard to the range of uncertainty as to the eventual outcome for the category of business in question; and
          (c) In circumstances where there exists considerable uncertainty concerning future events, a degree of caution is exercised such that liabilities are not understated.
          (d) If it is less than the aggregate case-by-case provision for claims reported set up by the claims manager, the insurance firmG must disclose in writing to the CBB the justification for such a release of reserves.
          Amended: October 2009
          Amended: January 2007

        • CA-5.1.10

          In determining the sufficiency of evidence and the ability to measure claims costs, an insurance firmG must take all reasonable steps to ensure that it has appropriate information with regard to its claims exposures.

      • Long-term Insurance Business

        • CA-5.1.11

          The amount of insurance liabilities which are long-term insurance businessG liabilities must be determined in accordance with International Accounting Standards applicable to insurance business or until such a standard or standards come into effect, with the provisions of Paragraphs CA-5.1.12 to CA-5.1.33 below.

          Amended: January 2007

        • CA-5.1.12

          The determination of the amount of long-term liabilities (other than liabilities which have fallen due for payment before the valuation date) must be made on actuarial principles with due regard to the reasonable expectations of policyholdersG and must make proper provision for all liabilities on prudent assumptions with appropriate margins for adverse deviation of the relevant factors.

          Amended: January 2007

        • CA-5.1.13

          The determination must take account of all prospective liabilities as determined by the policy conditions for each existing contract, taking due credit for premiums payable after the valuation date.

        • CA-5.1.14

          The determination must take into account all guarantees including but not limited to:

          (a) Guaranteed benefits;
          (b) Guaranteed surrender values;
          (c) Guaranteed annuities or annuity options; and
          (d) Any other guarantees, commitments or options however described that the insurance firmG has contracted to provide to a policyholderG .
          Amended: January 2007

        • CA-5.1.15

          The determination must take into account all bonuses contractually added to each policy.

        • CA-5.1.16

          The determination must take into account expenses including commission.

        • CA-5.1.17

          Subject to Paragraphs CA-5.1.18, CA-5.1.19 and CA-5.1.20, the amount of the long-term liabilities must be determined separately for each contract by a prospective calculation.

        • CA-5.1.18

          A retrospective calculation may be applied to determine the liabilities where a prospective method cannot be applied to a particular type of contract or benefit.

        • CA-5.1.19

          Where necessary, additional amounts must be set aside on an aggregated basis for general risks that are not individualised.

        • CA-5.1.20

          The method of calculation of the amount of liabilities and the assumptions used must not be subject to discontinuities from year to year arising from arbitrary changes and must be such as to recognise the distribution of profits in an appropriate way over the duration of each policy.

        • CA-5.1.21

          The distribution of surplus as bonus to participating policiesG must consider the level of premiums under these contracts, the assets held in respect of these contracts and the custom and practice of the company in the manner and timing of the distribution of profits.

        • CA-5.1.22

          The liability under a contract (other than a linked long-term contract) must be calculated using the net premium valuation methodG using rates of interest and rates of mortality or morbidityG considered appropriate by the actuaryG appointed as per the requirements of Paragraph AA-4.1.1, at a prudent level.

          Amended: October 2009
          Amended: October 2007
          Amended: January 2007

        • CA-5.1.22A

          The value of unit liabilities and non unit liabilities must be calculated separately for a unit linked policy. The value of unit liabilities is taken as the net asset value of the units at the valuation date. Non-unit liabilities must be valued by projecting future cash flows to ensure that all future outgoes can be met without recourse to additional capital support at any future time during the duration of the unit linked contracts at a prudent level.

          Adopted: October 2009

        • CA-5.1.23

          Other suitable alternative methods may be employed where it can be demonstrated that the alternative methods employed result in reserves no less, in aggregate, than would result from the net premium valuation methodG .

        • CA-5.1.24

          In order to take account of the acquisition expensesG , the net premium to be valued for the purpose of Paragraph CA-5.1.22 above may be increased by an amount not greater than the equivalent, taken over the whole period of premium payments and calculated according to the rates of interest and rate of mortality and morbidityG employed in valuing the contract, of 3.5 percent of the relevant capital sumG under the contract.

          Amended: January 2007

        • CA-5.1.25

          The increased net premium as computed in Paragraph CA-5.1.24 must not exceed the premium actually payable by the policyholderG under the contract.

          Amended: January 2007

        • CA-5.1.26

          For the purposes of Paragraph CA-5.1.24 'relevant capital sumG ' means:

          (a) The sum assured at the date of valuation for whole life assurancesG ;
          (b) The sum payable at the end of the contract term for endowment assurance contractsG ;
          (c) The capitalised value of the annuity at the vesting date (or cash option if greater) for deferred annuities;
          (d) The sum assured or the value of the fund for linked long-term contracts whichever is less notwithstanding (a) to (c) above, where the value of the fund means the aggregate of the value allocated to the contract in the form of units or any other measure and the total amount of premiums remaining to be paid over the term of the contract.

          excluding in all cases any vested reversionary bonus and any capital sums for temporary assurances.

          Amended: January 2007

        • CA-5.1.27

          The rate of interest employed for the valuation must be determined prudently with due regard to the yield on the existing assets attributable to the life business as well as the yields expected to be obtained on sums to be invested in the future.

        • CA-5.1.28

          The amount of the liability in respect of any category of contracts must, where relevant, be determined on the basis of prudent rates of mortality and morbidityG which in the opinion of the actuaryG are appropriate for that category.

          Amended: January 2007
          Amended: October 2007

        • CA-5.1.29

          Provision of expenses whether implicit or explicit must not be less than the amount required, on prudent assumptions, to meet the total cost that would be incurred in fulfilling the existing contracts if the company were to cease to transact new business twelve months from the valuation date. This provision must consider the company's actual expenses in the last twelve months before the valuation date and the expected level of inflation on future expenses.

        • CA-5.1.30

          Provision must be made on prudent assumptions to cover any increase in liabilities caused by policyholdersG exercising options under their contracts including options for guaranteed cash payments.

          Amended: January 2007

        • CA-5.1.31

          The liability under a contract for life business must not be less than zero.

        • CA-5.1.32

          No allowance must be made in the valuation for the voluntary discontinuance of any contract if the amount of liability so determined is less than the corresponding amount without the allowance for voluntary discontinuance.

        • CA-5.1.33

          The determination of the amount of long-term liabilities must take into account the nature and term of the assets representing those liabilities and the value placed upon them and must include prudent provision against the effects of possible future changes in the value of the assets on:

          (a) The ability of the company to meet its obligations arising under contracts for long-term business as they arise, and
          (b) The adequacy of the assets to meet the liabilities as determined by this Chapter.
          Amended: January 2007

        • CA-5.1.34

          For a life policy or an extension to a life policy with a policy term of less than or equal to one year, the valuation of these liabilities must follow Paragraphs CA-5.1.3 to CA-5.1.10.

          Adopted: October 2009

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