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Location: Central Bank of Bahrain Volume 4—Investment Business > Part A > Business Standards > RM Risk Management
  • RM Risk Management

    • Chapter RM-A Introduction

      • RM-A.1 Purpose

        • Executive Summary

          • RM-A.1.1

            This Module contains requirements relating to the management of risk by investment firm licenseesG . It expands on certain high level requirements contained in other Modules. In particular, Section AU-2.6 of Module AU (Authorisation) specifies requirements regarding systems and controls that have to be met as a license condition; Principle 10 of the Principles of Business (ref. PB-1.10) requires investment firm licenseesG to have systems and controls sufficient to manage the level of risk inherent in their business; and Module HC (High-level Controls) specifies various requirements relating to the role and composition of Boards, and related high-level controls.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-A.1.2

            This Module obliges investment firm licenseesG to recognise the range of risks that they face and the need to manage these effectively. Their risk management framework is expected to have the resources and tools to identify, monitor and control all material risks. The adequacy of a licensee'sG risk management framework is subject to the scale and complexity of its operations, however. In demonstrating compliance with certain Rules, licenseesG with very simple operational structures and business activities may need to implement less extensive or sophisticated risk management systems, compared to licenseesG with a complex and/or extensive customer base or operations.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-A.1.3

            The requirements contained in this Module apply to Category 1 investment firmsG and Category 2 investment firmsG only.

            Adopted: July 2007

        • Legal Basis

          • RM-A.1.4

            This Module contains the Central Bank of Bahrain's ('CBB') Directive (as amended from time to time) regarding Risk Management requirements applicable to investment firm licenseesG , and is issued under the powers available to the CBB under Article 38 of the Central Bank of Bahrain and Financial Institutions Law 2006 ('CBB Law').

            Amended: January 2011
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-A.1.5

            For an explanation of the CBB's rule-making powers and different regulatory instruments, see section UG-1.1.

            Adopted: July 2007

      • RM-A.2 Module History

        • Evolution of the Module

          • RM-A.2.1

            This Module was first issued in July 2007, as part of the second phase release of Volume 4's contents. It is dated July 2007. All subsequent changes to this Module are annotated with the end-calendar quarter date in which the change was made: UG-3 provides further details on Rulebook maintenance and version control.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-A.2.2

            A list of recent changes made to this Module is provided below:

            Module Ref. Change Date Description of Changes
            RM-1.1.11 04/2008 Clarified the requirement for investment firm licensees to have a separate risk management function.
            RM-7.3.3 04/2008 Clarified that CBB prior approval is required for intra-group outsourcing.
            RM-7.1.6,
            7.1.7 and
            7.1.16
            07/2008 Clarified that CBB prior approval is required for outsourcing arrangements.
            RM-B.1.2 10/2009 Amended to reflect applicability of Chapters RM-7 and RM-8.
            RM-7.1.16 10/2009 Amended to read approved person.
            RM-7.3.7 10/2009 New Rule added to clarify that licensees may not outsource core business activities, including internal audit, to their group.
            RM-7.4 10/2009 Updated to reflect CBB's requirements for outsourcing the internal audit function.
            RM-1.1.10, RM-1.1.11, and RM-1.1.13 07/2010 Updated and amended to include requirements for the risk management function.
            RM-7.1.7 07/2010 New Rule added regarding outsourcing core business functions or activities to third parties.
            RM-A.1.4 01/2011 Clarified legal basis.
            RM-B.2 01/2011 Removed reference in title to affiliates.
            RM-4.1.8 and RM-4.1.9 07/2012 Replaced reference to "securities" with "financial instruments".
            RM-7.4.5 10/2012 Corrected typo.
            RM-7.4.2A 01/2013 New Paragraph added to require that the outsourcing of the internal audit function must be supported by a board resolution or ratified by the audit committee.
            RM-7.1.9 07/2013 Added cross reference.
            RM-7.1.9A and RM-7.3.4 07/2013 Made reference to considerable outsourcing.
            RM-7.4.4 07/2013 Changed Guidance to Rule.
            RM-1.1.10 to RM-1.1.13 10/2013 Amendments made to allow overseas investment firm licensees to outsource the risk management function to their head office, subject to the CBB's prior written approval.
            RM-1.1.7 01/2016 Corrected cross reference.
            RM-1.1.9 01/2016 Aligned risk categories as per Module RM.
            RM-4.1.17 01/2016 Restructured Subparagraphs to avoid duplication.
            RM-7.1.9 01/2016 Clarified Guidance.
            RM-7.1.1 10/2017 Amended Paragraph to allow the utilization of cloud services.
            RM-7.1.3A 10/2017 Added a new Paragraph on outsourcing requirements.
            RM-7.1.6 10/2017 Amended Paragraph.
            RM-7.1.9 10/2017 Amended Paragraph.
            RM-7.1.11 10/2017 Amended Paragraph.
            RM-7.1.11A 10/2017 Added a new Paragraph on outsourcing.
            RM-7.1.13 10/2017 Amended Paragraph.
            RM-7.1.14 10/2017 Amended Paragraph.
            RM-7.1.14(f) 10/2017 Added a new sub-Paragraph.
            RM-7.1.17 10/2017 Amended Paragraph.
            RM-7.2.4 10/2017 Amended Paragraph.
            RM-7.2.11 10/2017 Amended Paragraph.
            RM-7.2.12 10/2017 Amended Paragraph.
            RM-7.2.18 10/2017 Amended Paragraph.
            RM-7.2.19 10/2017 Added a new Paragraph on security measures related to cloud services.
            RM-7.3.3 10/2017 Amended Paragraph.
            RM-7.3.4 10/2017 Amended Paragraph.
            RM-9.1 04/2019 Added a new Chapter on Cyber Security Risk.

        • Superseded Requirements

          • RM-A.2.3

            This Module does not replace any regulations or circulars in force prior to July 2007.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-A.2.4

            Further guidance on the implementation and transition to Volume 4 (Investment Business) is given in Module ES(Executive Summary).

            Adopted: July 2007

    • Chapter RM-B Scope of Application

      • RM-B.1 License Categories

        • RM-B.1.1

          The contents of this Module — unless otherwise stated — apply to Category 1G and Category 2 investment firmsG only.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-B.1.2

          Category 3 investment firmsG — unless otherwise stated — are exempted from the requirements of this Module with the exeption of Chapters RM-7 and RM-8.

          Amended: October 2009
          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-B.1.3

          In respect of Category 3 investment firmsG , however, the specific requirements contained in Module RM should be considered as good practice, which it may be appropriate to apply. Notwithstanding the exemption from the specific requirements of Module RM, specified in Rule RM-B.1.2, Category 3 investment firmsG are nonetheless required to maintain adequate systems and controls (see Sections AU-2.6 and PB-1.10).

          Adopted: July 2007

      • RM-B.2 Branches and Subsidiaries

        • Bahraini Investment Firm Licensees

          • RM-B.2.1

            Bahraini investment firm licenseesG must ensure that, as a minimum, the same or equivalent provisions of this Module apply to their branches, whether located inside or outside the Kingdom of Bahrain, such that these are also subject to an effective risk management framework. In instances where local jurisdictional requirements are more stringent than those applicable in this Module, the local requirements are to be applied.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-B.2.2

            Bahraini investment firm licenseesG must satisfy the CBB that their subsidiaries and other group members (where relevant) are subject to appropriate arrangements such that they too effectively manage their risks.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-B.2.3

            Where an investment firm licenseeG is unable to satisfy the CBB that its subsidiaries and other group members are subject to appropriate risk management arrangements, the CBB will assess the potential impact of risks — both financial and reputational — that this poses to the investment firm licenseeG . The CBB recognises that different types of activity require different approaches to risk management, and it does not necessarily expect arrangements to be in place elsewhere in a group equivalent to those contained in this Module. However, where the CBB assesses that risk management weaknesses in subsidiaries and other group members pose material risks to the investment firm licenseeG , the CBB may impose restrictions on dealings between the licenseeG and other group members. Where such weaknesses are assessed by the CBB to pose a major threat to the stability of the investment firm licenseeG , then its authorisation may be called into question.

            Adopted: July 2007

        • Overseas Investment Firm Licensees

          • RM-B.2.4

            Overseas investment firm licenseesG must satisfy the CBB that the same or equivalent arrangements to those contained in this Module are in place at the head office level, as well as ensuring that there is effective risk management of activities conducted under the Bahrain license.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-B.2.5

            In assessing compliance with Paragraph RM-B.2.4, the CBB will take into account regulatory requirements applicable to the head office, i.e. the company of which the Bahrain branch is part, as well as the risk management framework applied to the Bahrain operation. With the exception of specific requirements that explicitly apply to overseas investment firm licenseesG , overseas investment firm licenseesG should consider the contents of this Chapter as guidance, in judging whether risk management controls applied to the branch satisfy RM-B.2.4.

            Adopted: July 2007

    • Chapter RM-1 General Requirements

      • RM-1.1 Risk Management

        • Board of Directors' Responsibility

          • RM-1.1.1

            The Board of DirectorsG of investment firm licenseesG must take responsibility for the establishment of an adequate and effective framework for identifying, monitoring and managing risks across all its operations.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-1.1.2

            The CBB expects the Board to be able to demonstrate that it provides suitable oversight and establishes, in relation to all the risks the investment firm licenseeG is exposed to, a risk management framework that includes setting and monitoring policies, systems, tools and controls.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-1.1.3

            Although authority for the management of a firm's risks is likely to be delegated, to some degree, to individuals at all levels of the organisation, the overall responsibility for this activity should not be delegated from its governing body and relevant senior managers.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-1.1.4

            An investment firm licensee'sG failure to establish, in the opinion of the CBB, an adequate risk management framework will result in it being in breach of Condition 6 of the Licensing Conditions of Section AU-2.6. This failure may result in the CBB withdrawing or imposing restrictions on the licenseeG , or the licenseeG being required to inject more capital.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-1.1.5

            The Board of DirectorsG must also ensure that there is adequate documentation of the licensee'sG risk management framework.

            Adopted: July 2007

        • Systems and Controls

          • RM-1.1.6

            The risk management framework of investment firm licenseesG must provide for the establishment and maintenance of effective systems and controls as are appropriate to their business, so as to identify, measure, monitor and manage risks.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-1.1.7

            An effective framework for risk management should include systems to identify, measure, monitor and control all major risks on an on-going basis. The risk management systems should be approved and periodically reviewed by the Board as outlined in HC-1.2.10.

            Amended: January 2016
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-1.1.8

            The systems and controls required by RM-1.1.6 must be proportionate to the nature, scale and complexity of the firm's activities.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-1.1.9

            The processes and systems required must enable the licenseeG to identify the major sources of risk to its ability to meet its liabilities as they fall due, including the major sources of risk in each of the following Categories:

            (a) Counterparty risk;
            (b) Market risk;
            (c) Liquidity risk;
            (d) Operational risk; and
            (e) Derivative Transactions Risk;
            (f) Outsourcing Risk;
            (g) Group Risk; and
            (h) Any additional categories relevant to its business.
            Amended: January 2016
            Adopted: July 2007

        • Risk Management Function

          • RM-1.1.10

            A Bahraini investment firm licenseeG must have a risk management function commensurate with the nature, scale and complexity of its business.

            Amended: October 2013
            Amended: July 2010
            Amended: April 2008
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-1.1.11

            Where a licenseeG maintains a risk management function, this function must be independent of risk-taking units. The duties of the risk management function include but are not limited to:

            (a) Identifying, measuring, monitoring, and controlling the major sources of risks associated with the operations of the Bahraini investment firm licenseeG including any entity it may own, control or manage on an ongoing basis;
            (b) Reporting to the Board and senior management on all material risks to the licenseeG ; and
            (c) Documenting the processes and systems by which it identifies and monitors material risks, and how it reports to the Board and senior management these risks.
            Amended: October 2013
            Adopted: July 2010

          • RM-1.1.12

            The CBB will only consider a licensee not having a risk management function, where its investment activities are limited in scale and complexity, and appropriate mitigating controls are in place.

            Amended: October 2013
            Adopted: April 2008

          • RM-1.1.13

            Unless otherwise agreed in writing with the CBB, the risk management function of a Bahraini investment firm licensee, may not be outsourced to a third party.

            Amended: October 2013
            Adopted: July 2010

          • RM-1.1.14

            An overseas investment firm licenseeG may establish a risk management function commensurate with the nature, scale and complexity of its business. The risk management function may be combined with another function. The CBB will consider an overseas investment firm licenseeG not having a local risk management function, provided that it seeks CBB's approval to outsource this function to its Head Office, in accordance with Section RM-7.3 (Intra-group Outsourcing). In such case, the CBB must be satisfied that equivalent arrangements to those contained in this Module are in place at the Head Office level, and that such arrangements would entail effective risk management of activities conducted by the overseas investment firm licenseeG .

            Added: October 2013

    • Chapter RM-2 Counterparty Risk

      • RM-2.1 Counterparty Risk

        • RM-2.1.1

          Investment firm licenseesG must document in a credit policy their policies and procedures for identifying, measuring, monitoring and controlling counterparty risk. This policy must be approved and regularly reviewed by the Board of DirectorsG of the licenseeG .

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-2.1.2

          Among other things, the licensee'sG credit risk policy must identify the limits it applies to both individual counterparties and categories of counterparty, how it monitors movements in counterparty risk and how it mitigates loss in the event of counterparty failure.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-2.1.3

          A licensee'sG credit risk policy should provide a clear indication of the amount and nature of counterparty risk that the licenseeG wishes to incur. In particular, it should cover:

          (a) How, with particular reference to its activities, the licenseeG defines and measures credit risk;
          (b) The types and sources of counterparty risk to which the licenseeG wishes to be exposed (and the limits on that exposure) and those to which the investment firm licenseeG wishes not to be exposed (and how that is to be achieved, for example how exposure is to be avoided or mitigated); and
          (c) The level of diversification required by the licenseeG and the licensee'sG tolerance for risk concentrations (and the limits on those exposures and concentrations).
          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-2.1.4

          It is important that sound and legally enforceable documentation is in place for each agreement that gives rise to counterparty risk as this may be called upon in the event of a default or dispute. A licenseeG should therefore consider whether it is appropriate for an independent legal opinion to be sought on documentation used by the licenseeG . Best practise would dictate that documentation should normally be in place before the licenseeG enters into a contractual obligation or releases funds.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • Risk Monitoring

          • RM-2.1.5

            Investment firm licenseesG must implement an effective system for monitoring counterparty risk which should be described in a credit risk policy.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-2.1.6

            Investment firm licenseesG must meet the Counterparty Risk Requirements in Module CA-3.3. The licenseeG must monitor its exposures and must notify the CBB if its total exposure to an individual counterparty exceeds 25% of aggregate counterparty exposures and/or 25% of the licensee'sG regulatory capitalG .

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-2.1.7

            Individual credit facilities and overall limits should be periodically reviewed, in order to check their appropriateness for both the current circumstances of the counterparty and the firm's current internal and external economic environment. The frequency of review should be appropriate to the nature of the facility, but in any event should take place at least once a year.

            Adopted: July 2007

        • Record Keeping

          • RM-2.1.8

            Investment firm licenseesG must maintain appropriate records of:

            (a) Counterparty exposures, including aggregations of individual counterparty exposures, as appropriate, by:
            (i) Groups of connected counterparties;
            (ii) Types of counterparty as defined, for example, by the nature or geographical location of the counterparty;
            (b) Investment decisions, including details of the decision and the facts or circumstances upon which it was made; and
            (c) Information relevant to assessing current counterparty and risk quality.
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-2.1.9

            For the purposes of this Module, connected counterparties means all undertakings with which the licenseeG has close linksG ; the DirectorsG (and their family) of the licenseeG ; and the DirectorsG (and their family) of undertakings with which the licenseeG has close linksG .

            Adopted: July 2007

    • Chapter RM-3 Liquidity Risk

      • RM-3.1 Liquidity Risk

        • RM-3.1.1

          Investment firm licenseesG must maintain a liquidity risk policy for the management of liquidity risk of the licenseeG , which is appropriate to the nature, scale and complexity of its activities. This policy must be approved and regularly reviewed by the Board of DirectorsG of the licenseeG .

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-3.1.2

          Among other things, the licensee'sG liquidity risk policy must identify the limits it applies, how it monitors movements in risk and how it mitigates loss in the event of unexpected liquidity events.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-3.1.3

          The liquidity risk policy should cover the general approach that the licenseeG will take to liquidity risk management, including, as appropriate, various quantitative and qualitative targets. This general approach should be communicated to all relevant functions within the organisation.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-3.1.4

          The policy for managing liquidity risk should cover specific aspects of liquidity risk management. So far as appropriate to the nature, scale and complexity of the activities carried on, such aspects might include:

          (a) The basis for managing liquidity (for example, regional or central);
          (b) The degree of concentrations, potentially affecting liquidity risk, that are acceptable to the firm;
          (c) A policy for managing the liability side of liquidity risk;
          (d) The role of marketable, or otherwise realisable, assets;
          (e) Ways of managing both the licensee'sG aggregate foreign currency liquidity needs and its needs in each individual currency;
          (f) Ways of managing market access;
          (g) The use of derivatives to minimise liquidity risk;
          (h) The management of intra-day liquidity, where this is appropriate, for instance where the licenseeG is a member of or participates (directly or indirectly) in a system for the intra-day settlement of payments or transactions in investments; and
          (i) Policy on overdue and unsettled trades.
          Adopted: July 2007

        • Risk Identification

          • RM-3.1.5

            Investment firm licenseesG must identify significant concentrations within their asset portfolios. This should be done in relation to:

            (a) Individual counterparties or related groups of counterparties;
            (b) Credit ratings of the assets in its portfolio;
            (c) The proportion of an issue held;
            (d) Instrument types;
            (e) Geographical regions; and
            (f) Economic sectors.
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-3.1.6

            Investment firm licenseesG must identify on and off balance sheet impacts on its liquidity.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-3.1.7

            For the purposes of RM-3.1.6, the licenseeG should take into account:

            (a) Possible changes in the market's perception of the licenseeG and the effects that this might have on the licensee'sG access to the markets, including:
            (i) Where the licenseeG funds its holdings of assets in one currency with liabilities in another, access to foreign exchange markets, particularly in less frequently traded currencies;
            (ii) Access to secured funding, including by way of repo transactions; and
            (iii) The extent to which the licenseeG may rely on committed facilities made available to it;
            (b) (If applicable) the possible effect of each scenario analysed on currencies whose exchange rates are currently pegged or fixed; and
            (c) That:
            (i) General market turbulence may trigger a substantial increase in the extent to which persons exercise rights against the licenseeG under off balance sheet instruments to which the licenseeG is party;
            (ii) Access to OTC derivative and foreign exchange markets are sensitive to credit-ratings;
            (iii) The scenario may involve the triggering of early amortisation in asset securitisation transactions with which the licenseeG has a connection; and
            (iv) Its ability to securitise assets may be reduced at certain times.
            Adopted: July 2007

        • Risk Measurement and Monitoring

          • RM-3.1.8

            An investment firm licenseeG must establish and maintain a process for the measurement, monitoring and controlling of liquidity risk, using a robust and consistent method which should be described in its liquidity risk policy statement.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-3.1.9

            An investment firm licensee'sG monitoring framework must include a system of management reporting which provides clear, concise, timely and accurate liquidity risk reports to relevant functions within the firm. These reports must alert management when the investment firm licenseeG approaches, or breaches, predefined thresholds or limits, including quantitative limits imposed by the CBB.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-3.1.10

            Reports on liquidity risk should be provided on a timely basis to the investment firm licensee'sG governing body, senior management and other appropriate personnel. The appropriate content and format of reports depends on a licensee'sG liquidity management practices and the nature, scale and complexity of the licensee'sG business. Reports to the investment firm licensee'sG governing body may be less detailed and less frequent than reports to senior management with responsibility for managing liquidity risk.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-3.1.11

            For the purposes of testing liquidity risk, licenseesG must carry out appropriate stress testing and scenario analysis, including taking reasonable steps to identify an appropriate range of realistic adverse circumstances and events in which liquidity risk might occur or crystallise. LicenseesG should normally consider scenarios based on varying degrees of stress and both firm-specific and market-wide difficulties. In developing any scenario of extreme market-wide stress that may pose systemic risk, it may be appropriate for an investment firm licenseeG to make assumptions about the likelihood and nature of CBB intervention.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-3.1.12

            A scenario analysis in relation to liquidity risk should include a cash-flow projection for each scenario tested, based on reasonable estimates of the impact (both on and off balance sheet) of that scenario on the firm's funding needs and sources.

            Adopted: July 2007

        • Limit Setting

          • RM-3.1.13

            Investment firm licenseesG must set limits in accordance with the nature, scale and complexity of their activities. The structure of limits should reflect the need for investment firm licenseesG to have systems and controls in place to guard against a spectrum of possible risks, from those arising in day-to-day liquidity risk management to those arising in stressed conditions.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-3.1.14

            The CBB would normally expect a licenseeG to consider setting limits on:

            (a) Liability concentrations in relation to:
            (i) Individual, or related groups of, liability providers;
            (ii) Instrument types including those arising from short selling;
            (iii) Maturities, including the amount of debt maturing in a particular period; and
            (iv) Wholesale funding liabilities;
            (b) Where appropriate, net leverage and gross leverage; and
            (c) Daily settlement limits.
            Adopted: July 2007

        • Contingency Planning

          • RM-3.1.15

            Investment firm licenseesG must maintain contingency funding plans for taking action to ensure, so far as they can, that they can access sufficient liquid financial resources to meet liabilities as they fall due. These plans must also include what events or circumstances may lead to action under the plan being triggered.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-3.1.16

            The contingency funding plan should contain administrative policies and procedures that will enable the licenseeG to manage the plan's implementation effectively, including:

            (a) The responsibilities of senior management;
            (b) Names and contact details of members of the team responsible for implementing the contingency funding plan;
            (c) Where, geographically, team members will be assigned;
            (d) Who within the team is responsible for contact with head office (if appropriate), analysts, investors, external auditors, press, significant customers, regulators, lawyers and others; and
            (e) Mechanisms that enable senior management and the governing body to receive management information that is both relevant and timely.
            Adopted: July 2007

    • Chapter RM-4 Market Risk

      • RM-4.1 Market Risk

        • RM-4.1.1

          Investment firm licenseesG must document their framework for the proactive management of market risk. This policy must be approved and regularly reviewed by the Board of DirectorsG of the licenseeG .

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-4.1.2

          Market risk relates to the exposure of the licenseeG to fluctuations in the market value, currency or yield in respect of positions in financial instrumentsG (either long or short).

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-4.1.3

          A licensee'sG market risk policy document should identify its appetite for market risk, systems for identifying, reporting and documenting market risk and mitigation factors in place. In particular, the market risk policy should cover for market risk:

          (a) How, with particular reference to its activities, the licenseeG defines and measures market risk;
          (b) The licensee'sG business aims in incurring market risk including:
          (i) Identifying the types and sources of market risk to which the licenseeG wishes to be exposed (and the limits on that exposure) and those to which the licenseeG wishes not to be exposed (and how that is to be achieved);
          (ii) Specifying the level of diversification required by the licenseeG and the licensee'sG tolerance for risk concentrations (and the limits on those exposures and concentrations);
          (c) The licensee'sG investment strategy;
          (d) The financial instrumentsG , commodities, assets and liabilities (and mismatches between assets and liabilities) that a licenseeG is exposed to and the limits on those exposures;
          (e) Activities that are intended to hedge or mitigate market risk including mismatches caused by, for example, differences in the assets and liabilities and maturity mismatches; and
          (f) The methods and assumptions used for measuring linear, non-linear and geared market risk including the rationale for selection, ongoing validation and testing. Methods might include stress testing and scenario analysis, option Greeks, asset/liability analysis, correlation analysis and Value-at-Risk (VaR). Exposure to non-linear or geared market risk is typically through the use of derivatives.
          Adopted: July 2007

        • Risk Identification

          • RM-4.1.4

            Investment firm licenseesG must have in place appropriate risk reporting systems that enable them to identify the types and amount of market risk to which they are (or potentially could be) exposed to. The information that systems should capture may include but is not limited to position data which may consist of raw time series of position rates, index levels and prices and derived time series of benchmark yield curves, spreads, implied volatilities, historical volatilities and correlations.

            Adopted: July 2007

        • Risk Measurement

          • RM-4.1.5

            Investment firm licenseesG must carry out stress testing to access the resilience of their financial resources to any identified areas of material market risk under reasonably foreseeable circumstances. This stress testing may take into account the rating and geographical spread of its assets, the duration of their maturity relative to the licensee'sG liabilities and the fluctuation of interest and currency rates.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-4.1.6

            The licenseeG should consider potential market risk events that may affect its solvency. These include the following:

            (a) Reduced value of equities due to stock market falls etc;
            (b) Variation in interest rates and the effect on the market value of investments;
            (c) A lower level of investment income than planned;
            (d) Inadequate valuation of assets;
            (e) The direct impact on the portfolio of currency devaluation, as well as the effect on related markets and currencies; and
            (f) The extent of any mismatch of assets and liabilities of any type (eg. maturity, currency, market, repricing etc.).
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-4.1.7

            Where the licenseeG considers that the nature of its assets and the matching of its liabilities result in no significant market risk exposure (eg. its investments consist entirely of cash and bank deposits), it will not be expected to carry out stress testing. The CBB will expect it to document the reasons for its decision and be prepared to discuss these during an onsite visit.

            Adopted: July 2007

        • Valuation

          • RM-4.1.8

            Wherever possible, a licenseeG must mark to market the value of its financial instrumentsG , based on readily available close out prices from independent sources.

            Amended: July 2012
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-4.1.9

            Where marking to market is not possible, a firm must use mark to model in order to measure the value of its financial instrumentsG . Marking to model is any valuation which has to be benchmarked, extrapolated or otherwise calculated from a market input.

            Amended: July 2012
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-4.1.10

            A licenseeG must ensure that its Board of DirectorsG and senior management are aware of the positions which are subject to mark to model and understand the materiality of the uncertainty this creates in the reporting of the performance of the business of the firm and the risks to which it is subject.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-4.1.11

            In addition to marking to market or marking to model, a licenseeG must perform independent price verification, such that market prices or model inputs are regularly verified for accuracy and independence.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-4.1.12

            Systems and controls regarding valuations should include the following:

            (a) The department responsible for the validation of the value of assets and liabilities should be independent of the business trading area, and should be adequately resourced by suitably qualified staff;
            (b) All valuations should be checked and validated at appropriate intervals;
            (c) A licenseeG should establish a review procedure to check :
            (i) The quality and appropriateness of the price sources used;
            (ii) The level of any valuation reserves held; and
            (iii) The valuation methodology employed for each product and consistent adherence to that methodology;
            (d) A licenseeG should document its policies and procedures relating to the entire valuation process. In particular, the following should be documented:
            (i) The valuation methodologies employed for all product categories;
            (ii) Details of the price sources used for each product;
            (iii) The procedures to be followed where a valuation is disputed internally or with a service provider;
            (iv) The level at which a difference between a valuation assigned to an asset or liability and the valuation used for validation purposes will be reported on an exceptions basis and investigated;
            (v) Where a licenseeG is using its own internal estimate to produce a valuation, it should document in detail the process followed in order to produce the valuation; and
            (vi) The review procedures established by a licenseeG in relation to the requirements of this section should be adequately documented and include the rationale for the policy.
            Adopted: July 2007

        • Risk Monitoring

          • RM-4.1.13

            The investment firm licensee'sG risk reporting and monitoring system should be independent of the employees who are responsible for exposing the licenseeG to risk.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-4.1.14

            The market risk policy of a licenseeG may require the production of market risk reports at various levels within the licenseeG . These reports should provide sufficiently accurate market risk data to relevant functions within the licenseeG , and should be timely enough to allow any appropriate remedial action to be proposed and taken, for example:

            (a) At firm wide level, a market risk report may include information:
            (i) Summarising and commenting on the total market risk that a firm is exposed to and market risk concentrations by business unit, asset class and country;
            (ii) On VaR calculations, compared to risk limits by business unit, asset class and country;
            (iii) Commenting on significant risk concentrations and market developments; and
            (iv) On market risk in particular legal entities and geographical regions;
            (b) At the business unit level, a market risk report may include information summarising market risk by currency, trading desk, maturity or duration band, or by instrument type;
            (c) At the trading desk level, a market risk report may include detailed information summarising market risk by individual trader, instrument, position, currency, or maturity or duration band; and
            (d) All risk data should be readily reconcilable back to the prime books of entry with a fully documented audit trail.
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-4.1.15

            Risk monitoring reports and systems must be subject to periodic independent review by suitably qualified staff.

            Adopted: July 2007

        • Risk Control

          • RM-4.1.16

            Risk control is the independent monitoring, assessment and supervision of business units within the defined policies and procedures of the market risk policy. This may be achieved by:

            (a) Setting an appropriate market risk limit structure to control the licensee'sG exposure to market risk; for example, by setting out a detailed market risk limit structure at the corporate level, the business unit level and the trading desk level which addresses all the key market risk factors and is commensurate with the volume and complexity of activity that the licenseeG undertakes;
            (b) Setting limits on risks such as price or rate risk, as well as those factors arising from optionsG such as delta, gamma, vega, rho and theta;
            (c) Setting limits on net and gross positions, market risk concentrations, the maximum allowable loss (also called 'stop-loss'), VaR, potential risks arising from stress testing and scenario analysis, gap analysis, correlation, liquidity and volatility; and
            (d) Considering whether it is appropriate to set intermediate (early warning) thresholds that alert management when limits are being approached, triggering review and action where appropriate.
            Adopted: July 2007

        • Record Keeping

          • RM-4.1.17

            In relation to market risk, an investment firm licenseeG must retain appropriate prudential records of:

            (a) [This Subparagraph was deleted in January 2016 and requirements moved to (c)];
            (b) The nature and amounts of off and on balance sheet exposures, including aggregations of exposures;
            (c) Off and on market trades in financial instrumentsG and other assets and liabilities; and
            (d) Methods and assumptions used in stress testing and scenario analysis and in VaR models.
            Amended: January 2016
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-4.1.18

            A licenseeG should keep a data history to enable it to perform back testing of methods and assumptions used for stress testing and scenario analysis and for VaR models.

            Adopted: July 2007

    • Chapter RM-5 Operational Risk

      • RM-5.1 Operational Risk

        • RM-5.1.1

          Investment firm licenseesG must document their framework for the proactive management of operational risk. This policy must be approved and regularly reviewed by the Board of DirectorsG of the licenseeG .

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-5.1.2

          Operational risk is the risk to the licenseeG of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, people and systems, or from external events. In identifying the types of operational risk losses that it may be exposed to, licenseesG should consider, for instance, the following:

          (a) The nature of a licensee'sG customers, products and activities, including sources of business, distribution mechanisms, and the complexity and volumes of transactions;
          (b) The design, implementation, and operation of the processes and systems used in the end-to-end operating cycle for a licensee'sG products and activities;
          (c) The risk culture and human resource management practices at a licenseeG ; and
          (d) The business operating environment, including political, legal, socio-demographic, technological, and economic factors as well as the competitive environment and market structure.
          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-5.1.3

          A licenseeG should recognise that it may face significant operational exposures from a product or activity that may not be material to its business strategy. A licenseeG should consider the appropriate level of detail at which risk identification is to take place, and may wish to manage the operational risks that it faces in risk categories that are appropriate to its organisational and legal structures.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-5.1.4

          Investment firm licenseesG must consider the impact of operational risks on their financial resources and solvency.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-5.1.5

          An investment firm licensee'sG operational risk policy must outline the licensee'sG strategy and objectives for operational risk management and the processes, including internal controls and risk management mechanisms that it intends to adopt to achieve these objectives.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-5.1.6

          When assessing its operational risks, a licenseeG may be able to differentiate between expected and unexpected operational losses. A licenseeG should consider whether it is appropriate to adopt a more quantitative approach to the assessment of its expected operational losses, for example by defining tolerance, setting thresholds, and measuring and monitoring operational losses and exposures. In contrast, a licenseeG may wish to take a more qualitative approach to assessing its unexpected losses.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-5.1.7

          Although a licenseeG may currently be unable to assess certain operational risks with a high degree of accuracy or consistency, it should, according to the nature, scale and complexity of its business, consider the use of more sophisticated qualitative and quantitative techniques as they become available.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-5.1.8

          Investment firm licenseesG must establish mechanisms to ensure adequate internal controls are in place.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-5.1.9

          For the purposes of RM-5.1.8, internal controls for investment firm licenseesG should include books and records requirements, appropriate organisation structure, segregation of duties, and related controls that are designed to safeguard entity and client assetsG .

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-5.1.10

          Investment firm licenseesG must establish mechanisms to verify that controls, once established, are being followed. The verification procedures must include internal audits, which must be independent of trading desks and the revenue side of the business.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-5.1.11

          In establishing mechanisms and controls, the investment firm licenseeG should consider:

          (a) Corporate structure;
          (b) Delegation of authorities;
          (c) Outsourcing of functions;
          (d) Financial and human resources;
          (e) Risk management tools and processes;
          (f) Administrative systems and procedures;
          (g) Audit trail;
          (h) Nature and complexity of client service and fee arrangements;
          (i) Investment decision procedures;
          (j) Management information systems;
          (k) Compliance history and procedures;
          (l) Complaints by investors;
          (m) Regulatory actions; and
          (n) Follow up on regulatory actions and inspection observations.
          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-5.1.12

          Investment firm licensee'sG business continuity planning, risk identification and reporting must cover reasonably foreseeable external events and their likely impact on the licenseeG and its business portfolio.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-5.1.13

          Business continuity management includes policies, standards, and procedures for ensuring that specified operations can be maintained or recovered in a timely fashion in the event of a disruption. Its purpose is to minimise the operational, financial, legal, reputational and other material consequences arising from a disruption. Effective business continuity management concentrates on the impact, as opposed to the source, of the disruption, which affords financial industry participants and financial authorities greater flexibility to address a broad range of disruptions. At the same time, however, investment firm licenseesG cannot ignore the nature of risks to which they are exposed.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • Risk Monitoring and Controlling

          • RM-5.1.14

            When monitoring their operational risk, investment firm licenseesG must:

            (a) Report regularly to the relevant level of management its operational exposures, loss experience (including if possible cumulative losses), and authorised deviations from the investment firm licensee'sG operational risk policy;
            (b) Engage in exception-based escalation to management of:
            (i) Unauthorised deviations from the investment firm licensee'sG operational risk policy;
            (ii) Likely or actual breaches in predefined thresholds for operational exposures and losses, where set; and
            (iii) Significant increases in the investment firm licensee'sG exposure to operational risk or alterations to its operational risk profile.
            Adopted: July 2007

        • Record Keeping

          • RM-5.1.15

            Investment firm licenseesG must retain an appropriate record of their operational risk management activities.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-5.1.16

            RM-5.1.15 may, for example, include records of:

            (a) The results of risk identification, measurement, and monitoring activities;
            (b) Actions taken to control identified risks;
            (c) Where relevant, any exposure thresholds that have been set for identified operational risks;
            (d) An assessment of the effectiveness of the risk control tools that are used; and
            (e) Actual operational risk losses or events against stated risk appetite or tolerance.
            Adopted: July 2007

    • Chapter RM-6 Derivative Transactions Risk

      • RM-6.1 Derivative Transactions Risk

        • RM-6.1.1

          Investment firm licenseesG must seek prior CBB approval before starting to undertake derivative transactions. Investment firm licenseesG that engage in derivatives trading for their own account or for clientsG must evaluate the systems needs for such activity.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-6.1.2

          Rule RM-6.1.1 requires a one-off approval, before undertaking derivatives activity, rather than approval for each such transaction. With the complexity of derivatives products and the size and rapidity of transactions, it is essential that licenseesG capture all relevant details of transactions, identify errors and process payments or move assets quickly and accurately. This requires a staff of sufficient size, knowledge and experience to support the volume and type of transactions.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-6.1.3

          Current and projected volumes should be considered together with the nature of the derivatives activity and the users' expectations. Consistent with other systems plans, a written contingency plan for derivative products should be in place.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-6.1.4

          Investment firm licenseesG must ensure that a mechanism exists whereby derivatives contract documentation is confirmed, maintained and safeguarded.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-6.1.5

          Investment firm licenseesG should establish a process through which documentation exceptions are monitored and resolved and appropriately reviewed by senior management and legal counsel.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-6.1.6

          The licenseeG should also have approved policies that specify documentation requirements for derivatives activities and formal procedures for saving and safeguarding important documents that are consistent with legal requirements and internal policies.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-6.1.7

          Investment firm licenseesG must have adequate systems support and operational capacity to accommodate the types of derivatives activities in which it engages.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-6.1.8

          Systems design and needs may vary according to the size and complexity of the derivatives business. However, each system should provide for accurate and timely processing and allow for proper risk exposure monitoring. Operational systems should be tailored to each licensee'sG needs. Limited end-users of derivatives may not require the same degree of automation needed by more active trading institutions. All operational systems and units should adequately provide for basic processing, settlement and control of derivatives transactions.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-6.1.9

          For the purposes of RM-6.1.7, the systems should consider:

          (a) The firm's ability to efficiently process and settle the volumes of transactions;
          (b) The firm's ability to monitor and predict margin calls and settlement calls;
          (c) Availability of data sets including statistical factors particularly in respect of derivatives (betas, gammas etc.);
          (d) Processes to ensure that the data sets used are current and subject to validation processes to provide support for the complexity of the transaction booked;
          (e) The integrity of the valuation models used for derivative transactions — the investment firm licenseeG should have appropriate policies and processes ensuring accuracy and completeness of the related data flows including the data sets mentioned above, stress testing, backtesting for ensuring; and
          (f) Support systems and the systems developed to interface with the core applications or databases should generate accurate information sufficient and to allow business unit management and senior management to monitor risk exposures in a timely manner.
          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-6.1.10

          The more sophisticated the licensee'sG activity, the more need there is to establish automated systems to accommodate the complexity and volume of the deals transacted, to report position data accurately and to facilitate efficient reconciliation.

          Adopted: July 2007

    • Chapter RM-7 Outsourcing Risk

      • RM-7.1 Outsourcing Risk

        • RM-7.1.1

          Investment firm licenseesG must identify all material outsourcing contracts and ensure that the risks associated with such contracts are adequately controlled. In particular, investment firm licenseesG must comply with the specific requirements set out in this Chapter.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-7.1.2

          OutsourcingG means an arrangement whereby a third party performs on behalf of a licenseeG an activity that was previously undertaken by the licenseeG itself (or in the case of a new activity, one which ordinarily would have been performed internally by the licenseeG ). Examples of services that are typically outsourced include data processing, cloud services, customer call centres and back-office related activities.

          Amended: October 2017
          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-7.1.3

          For purposes of RM-7.1.1, a contract is 'material' where, if it failed in any way, it would pose significant risks to the on-going operations of a licenseeG , its reputation and/or the quality of service provided to its clientsG . For instance, the outsourcing of all or a substantial part of functions such as customer sales and relationship management, settlements and processing, IT and data processing and financial control, would normally be considered "material". Management should carefully consider whether a proposed outsourcing arrangement falls under this Module's definition of "material". If in doubt, management should consult with the CBB.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-7.1.3A

          For outsourcing services that are not considered material outsourcing arrangements, licenses must submit a written notification to the CBB before committing to the new outsourcing arrangement.

          Added: October 2017

        • RM-7.1.4

          Investment firm licenseesG must retain ultimate responsibility for functions or activities that are outsourced. In particular, licenseesG must ensure that they continue to meet all their regulatory obligations with respect to outsourced activities.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-7.1.5

          Investment firm licenseesG must not contract out their regulatory obligations and must take reasonable care to supervise the discharge of outsourced functions, if any.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • Supervisory Approach

          • RM-7.1.6

            Investment firm licenseesG must seek the CBB's prior written approval before committing to a new material outsourcing arrangement.

            Amended: October 2017
            Amended: July 2008
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.1.7

            Investment firm licenseesG may not outsource their core business function or activities to third parties.

            Adopted: July 2010

          • RM-7.1.8

            The prior approval request in RM-7.1.6 must:

            (a) Be made in writing to the licensee's normal supervisory contact; and
            (b) Contain sufficient detail to demonstrate that relevant issues raised in this Chapter have been addressed; and
            (c) Be made at least 6 weeks before the licenseeG intends to commit to the arrangement.
            Amended: July 2010
            Amended: July 2008
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.1.9

            The CBB will review the information provided and provide a definitive response within a reasonable period of time of receiving the request for approval referred to in Paragraph RM-7.1.8. The CBB may also contact home or host supervisors to seek their comments — in such cases, the period of time is also subject to the speed of their response.

            Amended: October 2017
            Amended: January 2016
            Amended: July 2013
            Amended: July 2010
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.1.9A

            The CBB's approach to approving requests for outsourcing arrangements will also consider whether the investment firm licenseeG has engaged in considerable outsourcing of its activities, a practice which the CBB does not favour.

            Added: July 2013

          • RM-7.1.10

            Once an activity has been outsourced, a licenseeG must continue to monitor the associated risks and the effectiveness of its mitigating controls.

            Amended: July 2010
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.1.11

            Investment firm licenseesG must immediately inform their normal supervisory contact at the CBB of any material problems encountered with an outsourcing provider. The CBB may direct the investment firm licenseeG to make alternative arrangements for the outsourced activity.

            Amended: October 2017
            Amended: July 2010
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.1.11A

            The CBB reserves the right to require a licensee to terminate or make alternative outsourcing arrangements if, among other reasons, the confidentiality of its customer information was, or is likely to be, breached or the ability of the CBB to carry out its supervisory functions in view of the outsourcing arrangement cannot be assured or executed.

            Added: October 2017

          • RM-7.1.12

            The CBB requires ongoing access to the outsourced activity, which it may occasionally want to examine itself, through management meetings or on-site examinations.

            Amended: July 2010
            Adopted: July 2007

        • Risk Assessment

          • RM-7.1.13

            Investment firm licenseesG must undertake a thorough risk assessment of an outsourcing proposal, before formally notifying the submitting the request for approval to CBB and committing itself to an agreement.

            Amended: October 2017
            Amended: July 2010
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.1.14

            Before entering into, or significantly changing, an outsourcing arrangement, a licenseeG should:

            (a) Analyse how the arrangement will fit with its organisation and reporting structure; business strategy; overall risk profile; and ability to meet its regulatory obligations;
            (b) Consider whether the agreements establishing the arrangement will allow it to monitor and control its operational risk exposure relating to the outsourcing;
            (c) Conduct appropriate due diligence of the service provider's financial stability and expertise;
            (d) Consider how it will ensure a smooth transition of its operations from its current arrangements to a new or changed outsourcing arrangement (including what will happen on the termination of the contract);
            (e) Consider any concentration risk implications such as the business continuity implications that may arise if a single service provider is used by several firms; and
            (f) Analyse the outsourcing provider's financial soundness, its technical competence, its commitment to the arrangement, its reputation, its adherence to international standards and the associated country risk.
            Amended: October 2017
            Amended: July 2010
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.1.15

            In negotiating its contract with a service provider, a licenseeG should have regard to:

            (a) Reporting or notification requirements it may wish to impose on the service provider;
            (b) Whether sufficient access will be available to its internal auditors, external auditors and to the CBB;
            (c) Information ownership rights, confidentiality agreements and Chinese walls to protect clientG and other information (including arrangements at the termination of the contract);
            (d) The adequacy of any guarantees and indemnities;
            (e) The extent to which the service provider must comply with the licensee'sG policies and procedures (covering, for example, information security);
            (f) The extent to which a service provider will provide business continuity for outsourcing operations, and whether exclusive access to its resources is agreed;
            (g) The need for continued availability of software following difficulty at a third party supplier; and
            (h) The processes for making changes to the outsourcing arrangement (for example, changes in processing volumes, activities and other contractual terms) and the conditions under which the licenseeG or service provider can choose to change or terminate the outsourcing arrangement, such as where there is:
            (i) A change of ownership or control (including insolvency or receivership) of the service provider or firm;
            (ii) Significant change in the business operations (including sub-contracting) of the service provider or firm; or
            (iii) Inadequate provision of services that may lead to the firm being unable to meet its regulatory obligations.
            Amended: July 2010
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.1.16

            Investment firm licenseesG must maintain and regularly review contingency plans to enable them to set up alternative arrangements — with minimum disruption to business — should the outsourcing contract be suddenly terminated or the outsourcing provider fail. This may involve the identification of alternative outsourcing providers or the provision of the service in-house. These plans should consider how long the transition would take and what interim arrangements would apply.

            Amended: July 2010
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.1.17

            A licenseeG must nominate a relevant approved personG within the licenseeG to handle the responsibility of the day-to-day relationship with the outsourcing provider and to ensure that relevant risks are addressed. The CBB should be informed of the designated individual as part of the written prior approval required under Rule RM-7.1.6. Any subsequent replacement of such person must also be notified to the CBB.

            Amended: October 2017
            Amended: July 2010
            Amended: October 2009
            Amended: July 2008
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.1.18

            All material outsourcing arrangements by an investment firm licenseeG must be the subject of a legally enforceable contract. Where the outsourcing provider interacts directly with a licensee'sG customers, the contract must — where relevant — reflect the licensee'sG own standards regarding clientG care. Once an outsourcing agreement has been entered into, licenseesG must regularly review the suitability of the outsourcing provider and the on-going impact of the agreement on their risk profile and systems and controls framework.

            Amended: July 2010
            Adopted: July 2007

      • RM-7.2 Outsourcing Agreement

        • RM-7.2.1

          The activities to be outsourced and respective contractual liabilities and obligations of the outsourcing provider and licenseeG must be clearly specified in an outsourcing agreement. This agreement must — amongst other things — address the issues identified below in this Section.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • Control Over Outsourced Activities

          • RM-7.2.2

            The Board and management of licenseesG are held ultimately responsible by the CBB for the adequacy of systems and controls in outsourced activities. Investment firm licenseesG must therefore ensure they have adequate mechanisms for monitoring the performance of, and managing the relationship with, the outsourcing provider.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.2.3

            Clear reporting and escalation mechanisms must be specified in the agreement.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.2.4

            Where an outsourcing provider in turn decides to sub-contract to other providers, CBB prior written approval must be obtained, and the original provider must remain contractually liable to the licenseeG for the quality and level of service agreed, and its obligations to the licenseeG must remain unchanged.

            Amended: October 2017
            Adopted: July 2007

        • Customer Data Confidentiality

          • RM-7.2.5

            Investment firm licenseesG must ensure that outsourcing agreements comply with all applicable legal requirements regarding clientG confidentiality.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.2.6

            Investment firm licenseesG must ensure that the outsourcing provider implements adequate safeguards and procedures.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.2.7

            For the purposes of RM-7.2.6, the implementation of adequate safeguards would include the proper segregation of clientG data from those belonging to other clientsG of the outsourcing provider. Outsourcing providers should give suitable undertakings that the company and its staff will comply with all applicable confidentiality rules. LicenseesG should have contractual rights to take action against the service provider in the event of breach of confidentiality.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.2.8

            Investment firm licenseesG must ensure that they retain title under any outsourcing agreements for data, information and records that form part of the prudential records of the licenseeG .

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.2.9

            Investment firm licenseesG must assess the impact of using an overseas-based outsourcing provider on their ability to maintain customer data confidential, for instance, because of the powers of local authorities to access such data.

            Adopted: July 2007

        • Access to Information

          • RM-7.2.10

            Outsourcing agreements must ensure that the investment firm licensee'sG internal and external auditors have timely access to any relevant information they may require to fulfil their responsibilities. Such access must allow them to conduct on-site examinations of the outsourcing provider, if required.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.2.11

            Investment firm licenseesG must also ensure that the CBB inspectors and appointed expertsG have timely access to any relevant information they may reasonably require to fulfil its responsibilities under the law. Such access must allow the CBB to conduct on-site examinations of the outsourcing provider, if required.

            Amended: October 2017
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.2.12

            Where the outsourcing provider is based overseas, the outsourcing provider must confirm in the outsourcing agreement that there are no regulatory or legal impediments to either the licensee'sG internal and external auditors, or the CBB inspectors and appointed expertsG , having the access described in RM-7.2.10 and RM-7.2.11 above. Should such restrictions be imposed, the licenseeG must communicate this fact to the CBB as soon as it becomes aware of the matter.

            Amended: October 2017
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.2.13

            The outsourcing provider must commit itself, in the outsourcing agreement, to informing the licenseeG of any developments that may have a material impact on its ability to meet its obligations. These may include, for example, relevant control weaknesses identified by the outsourcing provider's internal or external auditors, and material adverse developments in the financial performance of the outsourcing provider.

            Adopted: July 2007

        • Business Continuity

          • RM-7.2.14

            Investment firm licenseesG must ensure that service providers maintain, regularly review and test plans to ensure continuity in the provision of the outsourced service.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.2.15

            Investment firm licenseesG must have an adequate understanding of the outsourcing provider's contingency arrangements, to understand the implications for the licensee'sG own contingency arrangements.

            Adopted: July 2007

        • Termination

          • RM-7.2.16

            Investment firm licenseesG must have a right to terminate the agreement should the outsourcing provider:

            (a) Undergo a change of ownership (whether direct or indirect) that poses a potential conflict of interest;
            (b) Becomes insolvent; or
            (c) Goes into liquidation or administration.
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.2.17

            Termination under any other circumstances allowed under the agreement must give investment firm licenseesG a sufficient notice period in which they can effect a smooth transfer of the service to another provider or bring it back in-house.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-7.2.18

            In the event of termination, for whatever reason, the agreement must provide for the return of all clientG data — where required by investment firm licenses — or destruction of the records.

            Amended: October 2017
            Adopted: July 2007

        • Cloud services

          • RM-7.2.19

            For the purpose of outsourcing of cloud services, licensees must ensure that, at a minimum, the following security measures are in place:

            (a) Customer information must be encrypted and licensees must ensure that all encryption keys or similar forms of authentication are kept secure within the licensee's control;
            (b) A secure audit trail must be maintained for all actions performed at the cloud services outsourcing provider;
            (c) A comprehensive change management procedure must be developed to account for future changes to technology with adequate testing of such changes;
            (d) The licensee's data must be logically segregated from other entities data at the outsourcing service provider's platform;
            (e) The cloud service provider must provide information on measures taken at its platform to ensure adequate information security, data security and confidentiality, including but not limited to forms of protection available against unauthorized access and incident management process in cases of data breach or data loss; and
            (f) The right to release customer information/data in case of foreign government/court orders must be the sole responsibility of the licensee, subject to the CBB Law.
            Added: October 2017

      • RM-7.3 Intra-group Outsourcing

        • RM-7.3.1

          As with outsourcing to non-group companies, the Board and management of licenseesG are held ultimately responsible by the CBB for the adequacy of systems and controls in activities outsourced to group companies.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-7.3.2

          However, the degree of formality required — in terms of contractual agreements and control mechanisms — for outsourcing within a licensee'sG group is likely to be less, because of common management and enhanced knowledge of other group companies.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-7.3.3

          Investment firm licenseesG must obtain CBB prior written approval before committing to a material intra-group outsourcing. The request for approval must be made in writing to the licensee'sG normal supervisory contact at least 6 weeks prior to committing to the outsourcing, and must set out a summary of the proposed outsourcing, its rationale, and an analysis of its associated risks and proposed mitigating controls.

          Amended: October 2017
          Amended: April 2008
          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-7.3.4

          The CBB will respond to the request for approval in Paragraph RM-7.3.3 in the same manner and timescale as set out in Paragraph RM-7.1.9 and will also consider the issue of considerable outsourcing as outlined in Paragraph RM-7.1.9A.

          Amended: October 2017
          Amended: July 2013
          Amended: April 2008
          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-7.3.5

          The CBB expects, as a minimum, an agreed statement of the standard of service to be provided by the group provider, including a clear statement of responsibilities allocated between the group provider and licenseeG .

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-7.3.6

          The CBB also expects a licensee'sG management to have addressed the issues of customer confidentiality, access to information and business continuity.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-7.3.7

          Investment firm licenseesG may not outsource their core business activities, including the internal audit function, to their group. The outsourcing of certain functions is subject to the provisions of Modules RM (Risk Management), HC (High-Level Controls) and FC (Financial Crime).

          Adopted: October 2009

      • RM-7.4 Internal Audit Outsourcing

        • RM-7.4.1

          LicenseesG may not outsource their internal audit function to the same firm that acts as their external auditors.

          Amended: October 2009
          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-7.4.2

          LicenseesG may outsource their internal audit function for a maximum period of one year, following which a licenseeG is expected to establish an internal audit function commensurate with the nature, scale and complexity of its business.

          Amended: October 2009
          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-7.4.2A

          All requests to outsource the internal audit function must be supported by a board resolution or ratified by the audit committee.

          Added: January 2013

        • RM-7.4.3

          The CBB will only consider a licenseeG not having a separate internal audit function where its activities are limited in scale and complexity. In such case, it may continue to outsource this function for a period determined by the CBB.

          Amended: October 2009
          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-7.4.4

          In all circumstances, Board and management of licenseesG must retain responsibility for ensuring that an adequate internal audit programme is implemented, and will be held accountable in this respect by the CBB.

          Amended: July 2013
          Amended: October 2009
          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-7.4.5

          Due to the critical importance of an effective internal audit function to a licensee'sG control framework, all proposals to outsource internal audit operations are to be considered 'material outsourcing agreements'.

          Amended: October 2012
          Amended: October 2009
          Adopted: July 2007

    • Chapter RM-8 Group Risk

      • RM-8.1 Group Risk

        • RM-8.1.1

          Section RM-8.1 applies only to Bahraini investment firm licenseesG .

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-8.1.2

          Investment firm licenseesG must identify, manage and control risks to their activities arising from the activities and financial position of other members of their group.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-8.1.3

          The CBB may impose additional restrictions on the licenseeG should it have reason to believe that other members of the group pose undue risk to the licenseeG . These restrictions, for instance, may try to limit the risk of financial contagion, by restricting financial transactions between the licenseeG and group members.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-8.1.4

          For the purposes of Section RM-8.1, the term 'group' refers to a person or firm who is:

          (a) The parent of the licenseeG ;
          (b) A subsidiary of the licenseeG (including subsidiaries of subsidiaries); or
          (c) A subsidiary of the licensee'sG parent.
          Adopted: July 2007

        • RM-8.1.5

          The Board is required to request sufficient information of its group members to allow it to address group risks.

          Adopted: July 2007

        • Systems and Controls

          • RM-8.1.6

            The investment firm licenseeG must have adequate, sound and appropriate risk management processes and internal control mechanisms for the purpose of assessing and managing its own exposure to group risk, including sound administrative and accounting procedures.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-8.1.7

            For the purposes of RM-8.1.6, the question of whether the risk management processes and internal control mechanisms are adequate, sound and appropriate should be judged in the light of the nature, scale and complexity of the group's business and the level of interaction between the investment firmG and the group.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-8.1.8

            Where a licenseeG is part of a larger financial services group, it may rely on the systems and controls that the group (or its parent company) has put in place. The Board in these circumstances should establish what systems and controls are in place and should ensure that it is provided with sufficient and timely information on the financial position of the group. This should be evidenced in the prudential records retained in Bahrain.

            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-8.1.9

            The internal control mechanisms referred to in RM-8.1.6 must include:

            (a) Mechanisms that are adequate for the purpose of producing any data and information which would be relevant for the purpose of monitoring compliance with any prudential requirements (including any reporting requirements and any requirements relating to capital adequacy, solvency and large exposures):
            (i) To which the investment firm licenseeG is subject with respect to its membership of a group; or
            (ii) That apply to or with respect to that group or part of it; and
            (b) Mechanisms that are adequate to monitor funding within the group.
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-8.1.10

            In assessing group risk systems and controls, the investment firm licenseeG must give consideration to:

            (a) The likely impact of activities of the group on the compliance of the licenseeG with CBB requirements;
            (b) The effectiveness of the linkages between group and central functions and the licenseeG ;
            (c) Potential conflicts of interest and methods of minimising them; and
            (d) The risk of adverse events of other group entities on the licenseeG , in particular due to financial weakness, crime or fraudulent behaviour.
            Adopted: July 2007

          • RM-8.1.11

            A licenseeG should not be subject to material influence by other entities of the group through informal or undocumented channels. The overall governance, high-level controls and reporting lines within the group should be clearly documented.

            Adopted: July 2007

        • Reporting Requirement

          • RM-8.1.12

            Where the investment firm licensee'sG group or parent reports its own capital adequacy position to its regulatory authority (on a group or 'solo' basis), a copy of this calculation must be provided to the CBB within 30 calendar days from the due date to the other regulatory authority.

            Adopted: July 2007

    • Chapter RM-9 Cyber Security Risk

      • RM-9.1 Cyber Security Risk Measures

        • RM-9.1.1

          Investment firm licenseesG must establish clear ownership and management accountability for the risks associated with cyber-attacks. They must establish the related risk management processes commensurate with their size, nature of activities and risk profiles. Cyber security measures must be made part of the licenseeG 's IT security policy.

          Added: April 2019

        • RM-9.1.2

          Overseas investment firm licensees should confirm in writing to the CBB that policies covering all requirements of this Chapter are in place at the head office level.

          Added: April 2019

        • Training

          • RM-9.1.3

            The licenseesG must ensure that all employees receive adequate training on a regular basis, in relation to cyber security and the threats they could encounter. The effectiveness of the training should be tested on a periodic basis such as through testing employee reactions to simulated cyber-attack scenarios. The results of such tests must be used to further enhance the cyber security training of employees. All relevant employees must be informed on the current cyber security breaches and threats.

            Added: April 2019

        • Role of Board and Senior Management

          • RM-9.1.4

            The Board and senior managementG of the licenseesG must ensure that effective risk management practices are in place to address cyber security risks and that cyber security controls are periodically evaluated taking into account industry best practices and emerging cyber threats.

            Added: April 2019

          • RM-9.1.5

            The Board of the investment firm licenseeG must be responsible for:

            a) Setting and approving a cyber risk strategy commensurate with the size, nature of activities and the risk profile;
            b) Ensure that cyber roles withing the organization have been aligned to the cyber risk strategy;
            c) Approving a cyber risk management framework;
            d) Determining the manner in which it oversees implementation of the cyber risk management framework by senior managementG ; and
            e) Receiving reports on all cyber incidents.
            Added: April 2019

          • RM-9.1.6

            The senior managementG of an investment firm licenseeG must be responsible for the following activities:

            (a) Create an overall cyber risk management framework commensurate with the size, nature of activities and the risk profile of the licensee and formulate a cyber risk defense policy;
            (b) Regularly measure the effectiveness of the implementation of the risk management practices mentioned in RM-9.1.3 and ensure that this is regularly reported to the Board.
            (c) Ensure that process for identifying critical internal functions are in place and annually verified.
            (d) Adequately oversee the implementation of the cyber risk management framework;
            (e) Implement and consistently maintain an integrated, corporatewide, cyber risk management framework, including sufficient resource allocation;
            (f) Monitor the effectiveness of the cyber defense array and coordinate cyber defense activities with internal and external risk management entities;
            (g) Receive periodic reports from the relevant departments on the current situation with respect to cyber threats and cyber risk treatment; and
            (h) Receive periodic reports on all cyber incidents (internal and external) and analysis of their implications on the licenseeG .
            Added: April 2019

          • RM-9.1.7

            The senior management of an investment firm licensee is responsible for monitoring the implementation of any cyber security related outstanding issues through progress reports at regular intervals.

            Added: April 2019

          • RM-9.1.8

            Cyber security risk must be an item for discussion at Board meetings.

            Added: April 2019

          • RM-9.1.9

            The Board must ensure that the cyber security risk policy and procedures are robust and can comprehensively assist the licenseeG 's cyber security requirements. In the case of branches, it is recommended that there is a formal sign-off of a localised version of such policy.

            Added: April 2019

          • RM-9.1.10

            A clear reporting line to the Board must be established for cyber security risk incidents. A dedicated IT Security Officer must be appointed with responsibility for cyber and information security.

            Added: April 2019

          • RM-9.1.11

            A corporate-wide cyber security risk defense strategy must be defined and documented, which includes:

            a) The position and importance of cyber security risk defense at the licenseeG ;
            b) The cyber security risk-threat concept and the challenges facing the licenseeG ;
            c) The licensee'sG approach to cyber security risk management, definition and oversight the level of exposure to cyber security risk threats; and
            d) The key elements of cyber security risk defense strategy – objectives, principles of operation and implementation.
            Added: April 2019

          • RM-9.1.12

            LicenseesG must establish a cyber security risk policy, which includes:

            a) Cyber defense objectives, definition of areas of responsibilities, involved positions and functions (including work interfaces);
            b) Organisational structures, structure and governance of the cyber securityrisk management process at the licenseeG ;
            c) Internal procedural framework of the licenseeG , details of the controls required and the framework for their implementation;
            d) Monitoring and responses, training and awareness, information gathering, research, and sharing;
            e) Process maturity and effectiveness metrics and indexes; and
            f) Evaluation, control and reporting.
            Added: April 2019

          • RM-9.1.13

            LicenseesG must conduct a periodic assessment of cyber defense controls. Cyber defense control assessment must include an analysis of the controls' current status vis-à-vis relevant cyber security risk threats, weaknesses and risks across the different activity segments, including:

            a) Physical access, administration and organization;
            b) Information system lifecycle in various operational environments;
            c) Technology management and critical supporting systems;
            d) Interaction with customers, devices used by customers;
            e) Remote access, messaging and communication;
            f) Identity and access management, business partners and suppliers, information and data exchange channels; and
            g) Organisational culture and awareness, online presence, online activities and use of social networks, and business continuity.
            Added: April 2019

          • RM-9.1.14

            LicenseesG must arrange to seek cyber security risk insurance cover from a suitable insurer once the assessment of cyber security risk is complete. The insurance policy may include some or all of the following types of coverage, depending on the risk assessment outcomes.

            a) Crisis management expenses such as costs of notifying affected parties, costs of forensic investigation, costs incurred to determine the existence or cause of a breach, regulatory compliance costs, costs to analyse the insured's legal response obligations;
            b) Claim expenses such as costs of defending lawsuits, judgments and settlements, and costs of responding to regulatory investigations; and
            c) Policy also provides coverage for a variety of torts, including invasion of privacy or copyright infringement. First-party coverages may include lost revenue due to interruption of data systems resulting from a cyber or denial of service attack and other costs associated with the loss of data collected by the insured.
            Added: April 2019

        • Security Breach

          • RM-9.1.15

            LicenseesG must have suitable processes in place to verify the validity of all requests received through all methods of communication including email such as a phish alert solution. LicenseesG must also ensure that mobile devices with access to their systems, applications and networks are protected through security measures such as mobile device management, encryption, remote wipe, and password protection.

            Added: April 2019

          • RM-9.1.16

            LicenseesG must report to the CBB and Ministry of Interior's General Directorate of Anti-Corruption and Economic and Electronic Security any instances of cyber-attacks immediately, whether internal or external, that compromise customer information or disrupt critical services that affect their operations. When reporting such instances, licenseesG must provide the root cause analysis of the cyber-attack and measures taken by them to ensure that similar events do not recur. Any significant attack or breach to the system regardless of whether it caused loss or damage, must be reported to the CBB.

            Added: April 2019

        • Independent testing

          • RM-9.1.17

            All licenseesG providing internet services must test their systems against security breaches and verify the robustness of the security controls in place each year in June and December. These tests must be conducted by security professionals, such as ethical hackers, that provide penetration testing services and a vulnerability assessment of the system. The tests must be undertaken by external independent auditors or consultants.

            Added: April 2019

          • RM-9.1.18

            The vulnerability assessment report referred to in paragraph RM-9.1.15 must be provided to the CBB within two months following the end of the month where the testing took place, i.e. for the June test, the report must be submitted at the latest by 31st August and for the December test, by 28th February.

            Added: April 2019

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