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Location: Central Bank of Bahrain Volume 1—Conventional Banks > Part A > Business Standards > FC Financial Crime > FC-2 AML / CFT Systems and Controls > FC-2.2 On-going Customer Due Diligence and Transaction Monitoring
  • FC-2.2 On-going Customer Due Diligence and Transaction Monitoring

    • Risk Based Monitoring

      • FC-2.2.1

        Conventional bank licenseesG must develop risk-based monitoring systems appropriate to the complexity of their business, their number of clients and types of transactions. These systems must be configured to identify significant or abnormal transactions or patterns of activity. Such systems must include limits on the number, types or size of transactions undertaken outside expected norms; and must include limits for cash and non-cash transactions.

        October 07

      • FC-2.2.2

        Conventional bank licensees'G risk-based monitoring systems should therefore be configured to help identify:

        (a) Transactions which do not appear to have a clear purpose or which make no obvious economic sense;
        (b) Significant or large transactions not consistent with the normal or expected behaviour of a customer; and
        (c) Unusual patterns of activity (relative to other customers of the same profile or of similar types of transactions, for instance because of differences in terms of volumes, transaction type, or flows to or from certain countries), or activity outside the expected or regular pattern of a customer's account activity.
        October 07

    • Automated Transaction Monitoring

      • FC-2.2.3

        Conventional bank licenseesG must consider the need to include automated transaction monitoring as part of their risk-based monitoring systems to spot abnormal or unusual flows of funds. In the absence of automated transaction monitoring systems, all transactions above BD 6,000 must be viewed as 'significant' and be captured in a daily transactions report for monitoring by the MLRO or a relevant delegated official, and records retained by the conventional bank licenseeG for five years after the date of the transaction.

        October 07

      • FC-2.2.4

        CBB would expect larger conventional bank licenseesG to include automated transaction monitoring as part of their risk-based monitoring systems. See also Chapters FC-4 and FC-7, regarding the responsibilities of the MLRO and record-keeping requirements.

        October 07

    • Unusual Transactions or Customer Behaviour

      • FC-2.2.5

        Where a conventional bank licensee'sG risk-based monitoring systems identify significant or abnormal transactions (as defined in FC-2.2.2 and FC-2.2.3), it must verify the source of funds for those transactions, particularly where the transactions are above the occasional transactions threshold of BD 6,000. Furthermore, conventional bank licenseesG must examine the background and purpose to those transactions and document their findings.

        October 07

      • FC-2.2.6

        The investigations required under FC-2.2.5 must be carried out by the MLRO (or relevant delegated official). The documents relating to these findings must be maintained for five years from the date when the transaction was completed (see also FC-7.1.1 (b)).

        October 07

      • FC-2.2.7

        Conventional bank licenseesG must consider instances where there is a significant, unexpected or unexplained change in customer activity.

        October 07

      • FC-2.2.8

        When an existing customer closes one account and opens another, the conventional bank licenseeG must review its customer identity information and update its records accordingly. Where the information available falls short of the requirements contained in Chapter FC-1, the missing or out of date information must be obtained and re-verified with the customer.

        October 07

      • FC-2.2.9

        Once identification procedures have been satisfactorily completed and, as long as records concerning the customer are maintained in line with Chapters FC-1 and FC-7, no further evidence of identity is needed when transactions are subsequently undertaken within the expected level and type of activity for that customer, provided reasonably regular contact has been maintained between the parties and no doubts have arisen as to the customer's identity.

        October 07

    • On-going Monitoring

      • FC-2.2.10

        Conventional bank licenseesG must take reasonable steps to:

        (a) Scrutinize transactions undertaken throughout the course of that relationship to ensure that transactions being conducted are consistent with the conventional bank licensee'sG knowledge of the customer, their business risk and risk profile; and
        (b) Ensure that they receive and maintain up-to-date and relevant copies of the identification documents specified in Chapter FC-1, by undertaking reviews of existing records, particularly for higher risk categories of customers. Conventional bank licenseesG must require all customers to provide up-to-date identification documents in their standard terms and conditions of business.
        Amended: October 2017
        October 07

      • FC-2.2.11

        Conventional bank licenseesG must review and update their customer due diligence information at least every three years, particularly for higher risk categories of customers. If, upon performing such a review, copies of identification documents are more than 12 months out of date, the conventional bank licenseeG must take steps to obtain updated copies as soon as possible.

        Amended: October 2017
        October 07

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